Journal cover Journal topic
Wind Energy Science The interactive open-access journal of the European Academy of Wind Energy
Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 75-95, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-3-75-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research articles
06 Mar 2018
A control-oriented dynamic wind farm model: WFSim
Sjoerd Boersma1, Bart Doekemeijer1, Mehdi Vali2, Johan Meyers3, and Jan-Willem van Wingerden1 1Delft University of Technology, Delft Center for Systems and Control, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CC, Delft, the Netherlands
2Wind Energy System Research Group, ForWind, Küpkersweg 70, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
3KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, B3001 Leuven, Belgium
Abstract. Wind turbines are often sited together in wind farms as it is economically advantageous. Controlling the flow within wind farms to reduce the fatigue loads, maximize energy production and provide ancillary services is a challenging control problem due to the underlying time-varying non-linear wake dynamics. In this paper, we present a control-oriented dynamical wind farm model called the WindFarmSimulator (WFSim) that can be used in closed-loop wind farm control algorithms. The three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations were the starting point for deriving the control-oriented dynamic wind farm model. Then, in order to reduce computational complexity, terms involving the vertical dimension were either neglected or estimated in order to partially compensate for neglecting the vertical dimension. Sparsity of and structure in the system matrices make this model relatively computationally inexpensive. We showed that by taking the vertical dimension partially into account, the estimation of flow data generated with a high-fidelity wind farm model is improved relative to when the vertical dimension is completely neglected in WFSim. Moreover, we showed that, for the study cases considered in this work, WFSim is potentially fast enough to be used in an online closed-loop control framework including model parameter updates. Finally we showed that the proposed wind farm model is able to estimate flow and power signals generated by two different 3-D high-fidelity wind farm models.
Citation: Boersma, S., Doekemeijer, B., Vali, M., Meyers, J., and van Wingerden, J.-W.: A control-oriented dynamic wind farm model: WFSim, Wind Energ. Sci., 3, 75-95, https://doi.org/10.5194/wes-3-75-2018, 2018.
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Short summary
Controlling the flow within wind farms to reduce the fatigue loads and provide grid facilities such as the delivery of a demanded power is a challenging control problem due to the underlying time-varying non-linear wake dynamics. In this paper, a control-oriented dynamical wind farm model is presented and validated with high-fidelity wind farm models. In contrast to the latter models, the model presented in this work is computationally efficient and hence suitable for online wind farm control.
Controlling the flow within wind farms to reduce the fatigue loads and provide grid facilities...
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